Testing & Inspection of Stainless Steel 316/316L Materials
Testing (Destructive, Non Destructive)
|Positive Material Identification – PMI Testing||Hydrostatic Test|
|Chemical Analysis – Spectro Analysis||Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) Test|
|Mechanical Testing Such as Tensile, Elongation, Reduction of Area||Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC), NACE TM 0177|
|Micro Test||Radiography Test|
|Macro Test||Dye Penetrant Test (DP Test)|
|Hardness Test||Ultra Sonic Test (UT)|
|Pitting Resistance Test||Eddy Current Testing|
|Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) Test||Impact Test|
|Flaring Test||Bend Test|
- Our internal inspection reports would be provided for all the goods before shipment.
- Buyers or their associates are most welcome to visit us for personal inspect
- We regularly have inspections ongoing at our premises from internationally acclaimed Inspection Agencies such as TUV, BVIS, SGS, Llyods, DNV etc.
Prices for Stainless Steel 316/316L Materials
Prices for stainless steel 316/316L materials are directly co related to prices of the raw materials such as iron ore, metal scrap, chromium, nickel and various other alloying elements. The production cost of heat resistant stainless steel and nickel alloy plates is high as they contain high amount of nickel and chromium. Meanwhile, mild steel material is among the lowest cost steel available, followed by carbon steel, 400 series stainless steels, aluminium, alloy steel, and 300 series stainless steel. Special alloys such as titanium, Inconel, Monel and Hastelloy cost very high as the nickel, chromium and moly content is very high.
For special and discounted prices for various types of stainless steel 316/316L products, please feel free to contact us through email, phone or whatsapp.
We are also regularly publishing our price list for various steel products on our blog.
Documents Provided at the time of Domestic Sales or Export of Stainless Steel 316/316L Products
|Certificate of Origin||Raw Material Test Reports|
|Commercial Invoice||Heat Treatment Charts|
|Packing List||Quality Assurance Plan (QAP)|
|Fumigation Certificates||NABL approved Laboratory Test Reports|
|Letter of Gurantee||Material Test Certificates|
|ROHS Certificate||Certificate of Compliance/Conformity|
Price Basis for Stainless Steel 316/316L Materials
We can offer any of the following price basis depending on your requirement:
- FOR Site in India
- FOB Nhava Sheva
- CFR, CIF, CPT your destination port
- Door to Door Delivery Duty Paid as well as Duty Unpaid
Delivery Time of Stainless Steel 316/316L Materials
- If the items are available in stock, we take 2 days from the date of receipt of advance payment to clear the shipment and send it to port.
- And in-case the items are not availabe in stock, the time taken for manufacturing depends on the size, quantity and grade.
- However we can claim the fact that we can compete with anyone in India on Delivery time and most of the time our production time is the least.
- We have tied up with strong logistic partners in India which can undertake any type of shipping activities and make sure that there is no delay in shipment.
Marking & Packing of Stainless Steel 316/316L Materials
- All our products will have complete marking details which are co-related to the test certificates we supply.
- In case of orders for cut piece of Pipes, Sheets or Round Bars, the marking is transferred from the product from which it is cut. In such cases we provide Letter confirming the marking transfer and picture of the product from which it is cut.
- All goods are packed in wooden cases or pallets.
About 316/316L Stainless Steels
What is 316/316L Stainless Steel?
- Stainless Steel 316 is a chromium-nickel based, molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steel that possesses increased levels of resistance against several substances, due to the addition of molybdenum in its composition to help resist corrosion to chlorides (like sea water and de-icing salts). Grade 316 is an improved version of SS 304 because of slightly higher molybdenum and nickel content. SS 316 is also found to be more applicable in areas with high or elevated temperatures compared to other stainless steels. It has more heat resistance than Type 304 but otherwise possesses many of the same general characteristics.
- 316’s corrosion resistance is especially effective against chemicals, such as those used in the paper and textile industries. The metal finds other common applications in food processing equipment, chemical processing, nuts and bolts, and medical implants. While the metal is pliable under hot and cold-working techniques, it cannot be work hardened with heat treatment.
- The letter L in 316L stands for low carbon. L-grades have 0.035% carbon maximum. L-grades are resistant to sensitization in short-term exposures or heat treatments. L-grade often have slightly lower (typically 5,000 psi less) minimum strengths than standard stainless steel.
- Austenitic stainless steels can be welded together using many different welding processes. Some are more preferred for welding than others, such as 304, 316, 321, and 347 which are all austenitic grades that are weldable.
Product Forms & Manufacturing Standards for Stainless Steel 316/316L
|Product Forms||Material Standards|
|Plates, Sheets & Strips||ASTM A240, A666|
|Billets, Bars & Rods||ASTM A276, A484, A479|
|Forgings (Flanges & Fittings)||ASTM A182, A473|
|Wires||ASTM A313, A368, A478, A492, A493, A580.|
|Seamless and Welded Pipes||ASTM A312, A358, A270, A269, A249, A213, A813, A814.|
|Wrought Pipe Fittings||ASTM A403|
|Castings(Cast Fittings & Valve Parts)||ASTM A351, A743, A744|
What is the Difference Between SS 304, SS 316 and SS 316L?
|Contains more carbon||Contains less carbon|
|More liable to weld decay||Better for avoiding weld corrosion|
|Effective in acidic environments||Good for high-temperature, high-corrosion use|
- The difference between 304 and 316 is that 304 contains 18% chromium and 8% nickel, while 316 contains 16% chromium, 10% nickel and 2% molybdenum. The molybdenum is added to help resist corrosion to chlorides (like sea water and de-icing salts).
- The difference between 316 and 316L stainless steel is that 316L has a .03 max carbon and is good for welding whereas 316 has a mid range level of carbon. Even greater corrosion resistance is delivered by 317L, in which molybdenum content increases to 3 to 4% from the 2 to 3% found in 316 and 316L.
- SS 316L is more ductile when annealed, and is markedly more corrosion resistant, especially after welding. 316L is much more weld friendly than 316, as it is less susceptible to intergranular corrosion, after welding or air service up to 1600 °F (intermittent) 1700 °F (continuous), due to carbide precipitation. In 316 carbide precipitation will occur between 900 F-1070 F after 9 hours, whereas 316L will precipitate carbides between 900 °F – 1010 °F after 181 hours, 316L showing much more resistance to sensitization.
- 316L is very similar to 316 in almost every way. Cost is very similar, and both are durable, corrosion-resistant, and a good choice for high-stress situations.
- 316L, however, is a better choice for a project that requires a lot of welding because 316 is more liable than 316L to weld decay, though 316 can be annealed to resist weld decay. 316L also is a great stainless steel for high-temperature, high-corrosion uses, which is why it’s so popular for use in construction and marine projects.
- SS 316/316L materials are not a low cost option as compared to 304/304L stainless steel materials, but are a low cost option when compared to 317L stainless steel. 317 and 317L stainless steels have higher molybdenum content and are better for overall corrosion resistance.
What are the Various Applications of Stainless Steel 316/316L?
- Industrial fluid conveying pipes
- Mechanical structural tubes
- Heat exchanger and condenser tubes
- Pulp and paper manufacturing machinery
- Textile machinery
- Water treatment plants
- Sea water applications
- Medical equipment
- Boiler manufacturing
Properties and Processing Characteristics of Stainless Steel 316/ 316L
- Annealing 316 and 316L stainless steels requires heating to between 1,900 and 2,100 degrees Fahrenheit (1,038 to 1,149 degrees Celsius) before rapidly quenching.
- Type 316 grade stainless steel is particularly effective in acidic environments, protecting against corrosion caused by sulfuric, hydrochloric, acetic, formic, and tartaric acids, as well as acid sulfates and alkaline chlorides.
- Type 316L stainless steel is an extra-low carbon version of the 316 steel alloy. The lower carbon content in 316L minimizes deleterious carbide precipitation as a result of welding. Consequently, 316L is used when welding is required in order to ensure maximum corrosion resistance.
Equivalents of Stainless Steel 316/316L
Chemical, Mechanical and Physical Properties of Stainless Steel 316/316L
Chemical Composition of SS 316/316L
|NI||11.0 – 14.0||10.0 – 14.0||10.0 – 14.0|
|C||0.08 max||0.035 max||0.08 max|
|MN||2.0 max||2.0 max||2.0 max|
|P||0.045 max||0.045 max||0.045 max|
|S||0.30 max||0.30 max||0.30 max|
|SI||1.0 max||1.0 max||0.75 max|
|CR||16.0 – 18.0||16.0 – 18.0||16.0 – 18.0|
|MO||2.0 – 3.0||2.0 – 3.0||2.0 – 3.0|
|TI||5x(C+N) – 0.70|
Physical Properties of SS316/316L
|DENSITY||7.99 g/cm 3 / 0.29 lb/in 3|
|MELTING POINT||1371 – 1399 (°C) / 2500 – 2550 (°F)|
|ANNEALED||1040 (°C) / 1900 (°F)|
|ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY||74 microhm-cm (20 degrees Celsius)|
|SPECIFIC HEAT||0.50 kJ/kg-K (0–100 degrees Celsius)|
|THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY||16.2 W/m-k (100 degrees Celsius)|
|MODULUS OF ELASTICITY||193 x 103 in tension|
Mechanical Properties of SS 316/316L
|Alloy||UNS||Tensile Strength||Yield Strength||Elongation in 2 inch (min.) %||Grain Size Req.||Max. Hardness HRB Rockwell|
|316H||S31609||515||75||30||205||35||7 or coarser||90 HRB|
Fabrication Data for Stainless Steel 316/316L
Alloy 316/316L can be easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.
- Working temperatures of 1700–2200°F (927–1204°C) are recommended for most hot working processes. For maximum corrosion resistance, the material should be annealed at 1900°F (1038°C) minimum and water quenched or rapidly cooled by other means after hot working.
- The alloy is quite ductile and forms easily. Cold working operations will increase the strength and hardness of the alloy and might leave it slightly magnetic.
- Alloy 316/316L can be readily welded by most standard processes. A post weld heat treatment is not necessary.
- Alloy 316/316L is subject to work hardening during deformation and is subject to chip breaking. The best machining results are achieved with slower speeds, heavier feeds, excellent lubrication, sharp tooling and powerful rigid equipment.
Heat Treatment & Resistance Information for Stainless Steel 316/316L
- The austenitic stainless steel are provided in the mill annealed condition ready for use. Heat treatment may be necessary during or after fabrication to remove the effects of cold forming or to dissolve precipitated chromium carbides resulting from thermal exposures.
- For the Alloys 316 and 317L the solution anneal is accomplished by heating in the 1900 to 2150°F (1040 to 1175°C) temperature range followed by air cooling or a water quench, depending on section thickness.
- Cooling should be sufficiently rapid through the 1500 to 800°F (816 to 427°C) range to avoid reprecipitation of chromium carbides and provide optimum corrosion resistance. In every case, the metal should be cooled from the annealing temperature to black heat in less than three minutes.
- Alloys 316 and 317L stainless steel tube cannot be hardened by heat treatment.
- Good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 1600°F (870°C) and in continuous service to 1700°F (925°C)
- Grade 316L is more resistant to carbide precipitation.
Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel 316/316L
- SS 316/ 316L are subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 122°F (50°C). Generally more resistant than 304 in range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media due to the increased chromium
and molybdenum content. Considered resistant to potable water with up to about 1000mg/L chlorides at ambient temperatures, reducing to about 500mg/L at 140°F (60°C). Usually regarded as the “marine grade stainless steel” – but is not resistant to warm sea water.