Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings Manufacturers, Suppliers, Stockist – ANSI B16.11, ASTM A105/N, ASTM A350 LF2, LF3, LF6 Wholesalers

  • Size: from 1/4″ to 4″ (6mm-100mm), Pressure: 2000LBS, 3000LBS, 6000LBS, 9000LBS
  • Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings 90° Elbow, 45° Elbow, Tee, Cross, Full Coupling, Half Coupling, Reducing Coupling, Pipe Cap, Hex Head, Bushing, Hex Head Plug, Square Head Plug, Round Head Plug, Union, Hex Nipple, Street Elbow, Bull Plug, Boss, Swage Nipple, Pipe Nipple, Adapter, Union (Male x Female), Branch Outlet, 90° Elbow Outlet, 45° Lateral Tee, Lateral Outlet, Nipple Branch Outlet

Metallica is a well known manufacturer and supplier of carbon steel threaded pipe fitting for the clients from oil and gas, petrochemicals, railway, construction and other industries. Carbon steel threaded pipe fitting is commonly used in low-cost, noncritical applications such as domestic water, fire protection, and industrial cooling water systems. We manufacture different size and shapes of carbon steel threaded pipe fittings by closed die forging. Our main products include carbon steel threaded pipe fittings in size range of 1/4″ to 4″ (6mm-100mm), with pressure rating of 2000LBS, 3000LBS, 6000LBS, and 9000LBS. The most common and materials include ASTM A105/N, ASTM A350 LF2, LF3, LF6.

Forged Socket Weld & Threaded Pipe Fittings Manufacturing Standards

  • ASTM A182 – ASME SA182 – Standard Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
  • ASME B16.9 – Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
  • ASME B16.11 – Socket Welding and Threaded Forged Fittings
  • MSS SP-43 – Wrought and Fabricated Butt-Welding Fittings for Low Pressure, Corrosion Resistant Applications
  • MSS SP-95 – Swage(d) Nipples and Bull Plugs
  • BS3799 – Specification for Steel pipe fittings, screwed and Socket-welding for the petroleum industry

Carbon Steel threaded pipe fittings are generally used for small size pipes and piping systems (generally below 4 inches in diameter for Class 3000, and below 2 inches for fittings in class 6000 and 9000). Carbon Steel threaded pipe fittings are manufactured by forging, followed by heat treatment and machining solid steel as per ASME B16.11 and other dimensional standards. For bigger size piping systems buttweld pipe fittings produced as per ASME B16.9 are used.

The B16.11 standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and material requirements for forged carbon and alloy steel. Acceptable material forms are forgings, bars, seamless pipe, and seamless tubes which conform to the fittings chemical requirements, melting practices, and mechanical property requirements of ASTM A105, A182, or A350. ASME B16.11. Forged fittings are available with two types of end connections, which are called “socket weld” and “threaded”. Metallica is engaged in the production and trade of all kinds of carbon steel threaded pipe fitting finished and unfinished products. 90 degree carbon steel threaded pipe fitting is our main production and sell as well.

Types of Carbon Steel Threaded Fittings

UN/UNF. BSPT (BSP, Tapered)
NPT/NPTF. Metric Parallel.
BSPP (BSP, Parallel) Metric Tapered.

Our Main Products of Threaded Pipe Fittings

Elbow, Tee, Cross, Union, Nut, Coupling, Nipple
Elbow: 45/90/180 Degree, Street/Red Elbow
Tee: Equal/Red
Union : Conical, Flat, F/F, M/F, F/W, M/W, W/W
Nut: Hex, Square, Round
Cross, Coupling, Nipple

Stock Range of Carbon Steel Threaded Fittings

Product Carbon Steel Threaded Fittings
Type Elbow 90°, Tee, Reducing Tee, Cross, Street Elbow 90°, Elbow 45°, Union,
Plug, Bushing, Nipple, Cap, Socket, Coupling, Welding nipple,
Barrel nipple and hose barrel nipple etc
Standard ASTM A105 & ASME SA105, A105N, ASTM A234WPB, A234WPC, A420WPL6
Grades ASME/ANSI B16.11, MSS-SP-97, MSS-SP-79, JIS B2316, BS 3799
Wall Thickness SCH5S-XXS
Size Welded: 1/2″-48″ (DN15-DN1200)
Seamless 1/2″-24″(DN15-DN600)
Surface Treatment Polished, Mirror finish, Sand Blast, Varnished Transparent oil, Rust-proof oil, Hot galvanizing
Radius Long radius,Short radius ,R=1.5D,R=3D,R=5D,female,male,etc
Connection Male or Female
Dimension ANSI B16.3
Thread NPT, BSP, BSPT, DIN2999 ISO7/1, and threads with special requirements
Pressure Rate  ANSI Class 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500
DIN PN 6, PN 10, PN16, PN25, PN40 and PN64
JIS 5K, 10K, 16K and 20K
Casting Process Made By Lost Wax Investment Casting
End Treatment Bevel Ends , Plain Ends , or as per Clients Requirements
Application Construction, Industrial material
Packing In wooden cases, wooden pallets or as per customers special requirement
Price Term FOB, CIF, CFR

Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Threaded Fittings

Gr. C Mn P, % max S, % max Si
WPB 0.3 0.29 0.05 0.058 0.1
(1 2 3 4 5) max 1.06 min
WPC 0.35 0.29 0.05 0.058 0.1
(2 3 4 5) max 1.06 min
WP1 0.28 0.3 0.045 0.045 0.1
max 0.9 0.5
WP12 CL1 0.05 0.3 0.045 0.045 0.6
0.2 0.8 max
WP12 CL2 0.05 0.3 0.045 0.045 0.6
0.2 0.8 max
WP11 CL1 0.05 0.3 0.03 0.03 0.5
0.15 0.6 1
WP11 CL2 0.05 0.3 0.04 0.04 0.5
0.2 0.8 1
WP11 CL3 0.05 0.3 0.04 0.04 0.5
0.2 0.8 1
WP22 CL1 0.05 0.3 0.04 0.04 0.5
0.15 0.6 max
WP22 CL3 0.05 0.3 0.04 0.04 0.5
0.15 0.6 max
WP5 CL1 0.15 0.3 0.04 0.03 0.5
max 0.6 max
WP5 CL3 0.15 0.3 0.04 0.03 0.5
max 0.6 max
WP9 CL1 0.15 0.3 0.03 0.03 1
max 0.6 max
WP9 CL3 0.15 0.3 0.03 0.03 1
max 0.6 max
WPR 0.2 0.4 0.045 0.05
max 1.06
WP91 0.08 0.3 0.02 0.01 0.2
0.12 0.6 0.5
WP911 0.09 0.3 0.02 0.01 0.1
0.13 0.6 0.5
Composition, %
Gr. Cr Mo Ni Cu Others
WPB 0.4 0.15 0.4 0.4 V 0.08
(1 2 3 4 5) max max max max max
WPC 0.4 0.15 0.4 0.4 V 0.08
(2 3 4 5) max max max max max
WP1 0.44
0.65
WP12 CL1 0.8 0.44
1.25 0.65
WP12 CL2 0.8 0.44
1.25 0.65
WP11 CL1 1 0.44
1.5 0.65
WP11 CL2 1 0.44
1.5 0.65
WP11 CL3 1 0.44
1.5 0.65
WP22 CL1 1.9 0.87
2.6 1.13
WP22 CL3 1.9 0.87
2.6 1.13
WP5 CL1 4 0.44
6 0.65
WP5 CL3 4 0.44
6 0.65
WP9 CL1 8 0.9
10 1.1
WP9 CL3 8 0.9
10 1.1
WPR 1.6 0.75
2.24 1.25
WP91 8 0.85 0.4 V 0.18
9.5 1.05 max 0.25
Nb 0.06
0.1
N 0.03
0.07
Al 0.02 max (6)
Ti 0.01 max (6)
Zr 0.01 max (6)
WP911 8 0.9 0.4 V 0.18
9.5 1.1 max 0.25
Nb 0.06
0.1
N 0.04
0.09
Al 0.02 max (6)
B 0.0003
0.006
W 0.9
1.1
Ti 0.01 max (6)
Zr 0.01 max (6)

Threaded fittings are normally made of cast gray or malleable iron, cast brass or bronze, or forged alloy and carbon steel. They are available in three pressure ratings: Class 2000, 3000 and 6000. At the smallest sizes, the amount of wall lost during threading actually equals approximately 55% of the original pipe wall.

Socket weld and Threaded Pipe Fittings are forged product and classified based on its pressure-temperature rating. Socket weld & Threaded end fittings are available from NPS 1/8” to 4”. These fittings are available in four pressure-temperature rating class.

  • 2000 class fittings are available in only in threaded type.
  • 3000 & 6000 class fittings are available in both Threaded and Socket Weld types.
  • 9000 class fittings are available in only socket weld type.

Socket and threaded fittings are used for small bore and low-pressure piping.

Manufacturing Process for Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

  • Forged fittings are the fittings made by forged steel. The process of manufacturing forged steel fittings include: cutting and heating billets, put pressure on heated billets under dies into desired shape, trimming and shot blasting. Then machine forged blank fittings for net shape and dimensions. According to the applications of forged steel fittings, they are available in threaded and socket weld end connections.
  • The main raw material for producing forged pipe fittings is round bar stock or billets.
  • Most of the forged steel fittings are not large, so closed die forging is normally adapted to produce forged steel fittings. Compared to the open die forging, the close die forging can achieve more complex geometries, very much close to the dimensions of the finished component.
  • Close die forging can produce forged fittings in all materials such as carbon steel, duplex, stainless steel or nickel alloys.

Types of Carbon Steel Socket Welded & Threaded Forged Steel Pipe Fittings

  1. Carbon Steel Threaded Elbows (90 Degree Elbows and 45 Degree Elbows) – A pipe elbow is a forged steel fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tube allowing a change of direction, usually in the 90° or 45° direction. Similar to a reducing tee, reducing elbows also exist to simultaneously change flow direction and reduce flow diameter. Street Elbows have one female end to accept pipe and another male end thread that is the same size as the pipe and can avoid the use of a pipe nipple during installation.
  2. Carbon Steel Threaded Tees (Equal Tee and Reducing Tees)– Tees are a type of forged steel fitting used to combine or divide process flow, and Reducing Tees additionally allow for pipe size change. The run outlets of the tee are the two in-line outlets, and the branch is the third outlet. The branch outlet is the reducing outlet in a reducing tee.
  3. Carbon Steel Threaded Couplings (Straight and Reducing Couplings, Full and Half Couplings) – Couplings are a forged steel fitting used to connect two lengths of pipe, and Half-coupling is screwed onto the pipe, while the other end is made to be tightly inserted, or welded, onto the other end to pipe or vessel. Standard Couplings have female threads or open sockets at both ends, whereas reducing couplings connect smaller pipes to larger ones.
  4. Carbon Steel Threaded Unions– Unions are a forged steel fitting similar to a coupling but allow a convenient disconnection and connection; it has 3 parts: a nut, a female end, and a male end. They allow two lengths of pipe to be assembled and detached without causing any deformation to the pipes.
  5. Carbon Steel Threaded Bushings (Hex Head Bushings and Flush Bushings) – Reducing inserts and Bushings are forged steel fittings that allow for a change in pipe size. Pictured here is the hex head bushing, which is most commonly used.
  6. Carbon Steel Threaded Caps (Pipe Caps and End Caps) – Caps are forged steel fittings used to terminate the flow, inserting over the end of the pipe.
  7. Carbon Steel Threaded Plug (Square Head Plugs, Hex Head Plugs and Round Head Plugs) – Similar to a cap, plugs are forged steel fittings that are inserted into the end of the pipe, and they come with different head types, including: hex, square, and round.
  8. Carbon Steel Threaded Cross – Crosses are a 4-way forged steel fitting, with 1 inlet and 3 outlets or vice versa. These are sometimes referred to as 4-way tees.
  9. Carbon Steel Threaded Outlets (Weldolets, Sockolets, Threadolets, Elbolets, Latrolets and Nipolets)
  10. Carbon Steel Threaded Nipples (Hexagonal Nipples and Swaged Nipples)

Advantages of Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

  • Material performance superiority
  • Advantages of environmental protection
  • The superiority of connection technology
  • The superiority of appearance
  • Cost-effective superiority
  • Quick connection and safe installations
  • Remarkable corrosion resistance
  • Superior crush resistance
  • Installation productivity is moderately high, and specialized installation skill requirements are not extensive.
  • Leakage integrity is good for low-pressure, low-temperature installations where vibration is not encountered.

Disadvantages of Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

  • In hazardous piping systems threaded connections should be avoided, if possible. Their vulnerability to fatigue damage is significant, especially where exposed threads are subject to corrosion.
  • Rapid temperature changes may lead to leaks due to differential thermal expansion between the pipe and fittings.
  • Vibration can result in fatigue failures of screwed pipe joints due to the high stress intensification effects caused by the sharp notches at the base of the threads.

Difference Between Socket Weld Pipe Fittings and Threaded Pipe Fittings

  1. Socket weld fittings are used for applications where strong and long-lasting connections are required.  Socket weld fittings are very reliable but are time-consuming to install in a piping system (due to the heavy workload caused by welding operations on small parts). Threaded fittings are used for less-critical piping systems, such as water distribution, fire protection, and cooling, or for low-pressure installations not subject to vibration, elongation and bending forces. Threaded pipe fittings are not suited for fluids with constantly changing temperatures, as sudden changes may crack the connection.
  2. Socket weld fittings are connected to pipes by fillet welds, whereas threaded fittings are screwed onto the pipe or vice-versa.

Difference Between Malleable Iron Pipe Fittings and Threaded Pipe Fittings

A malleable iron fitting is used for light industrial application, plumbing application. These threaded fittings have a high pressure rating, they are made out of a forged steel. One big difference is that malleable iron fitting is not very good with welding whereas, threaded fitting, you can weld. Again, this is a threaded fitting, but depending on your application, if there is a requirement to weld it, then you would be better off using a forged carbon steel. Also, malleable iron fitting come in 150 pound, 300 pound rating which you can make a comparison, much lower, whereas a threaded fitting come in a 3000 and 6000 pound pressure rating.

Testing & Inspection of Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

Testing (Destructive, Non Destructive)

Positive Material Identification – PMI Testing Hydrostatic Test
Chemical Analysis – Spectro Analysis Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) Test
Mechanical Testing Such as Tensile, Elongation, Reduction of Area Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC), NACE TM 0177
Micro Test Radiography Test
Macro Test Dye Penetrant Test (DP Test)
Hardness Test Ultra Sonic Test (UT)
Pitting Resistance Test Eddy Current Testing
Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) Test Impact Test
Flaring Test Bend Test
Flattening Test

Inspection

  • Our internal inspection reports would be provided for all the goods before shipment.
  • Buyers or their associates are most welcome to visit us for personal inspect
  • We regularly have inspections ongoing at our premises from internationally acclaimed Inspection Agencies such as TUV, BVIS, SGS, Llyods, DNV etc.

Prices for Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

Prices for carbon steel threaded pipe fittings are directly co related to prices of the raw materials such as iron ore, metal scrap, chromium, nickel and various other alloying elements. The production cost of heat resistant stainless steel and nickel alloy plates is high as they contain high amount of nickel and chromium. Meanwhile, mild steel material is among the lowest cost steel available, followed by carbon steel, 400 series stainless steels, aluminium, alloy steel, and 300 series stainless steel. Special alloys such as titanium, Inconel, Monel and Hastelloy cost very high as the nickel, chromium and moly content is very high.

For special and discounted prices for various types of carbon steel threaded pipe fittings, please feel free to contact us through email, phone or whatsapp.

We are also regularly publishing our price list for various steel products on our blog.

Documents Provided at the time of Domestic Sales or Export of Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

Certificate of Origin Raw Material Test Reports
Commercial Invoice Heat Treatment Charts
Packing List Quality Assurance Plan (QAP)
Fumigation Certificates NABL approved Laboratory Test Reports
Letter of Guarantee Material Test Certificates
ROHS Certificate Certificate of Compliance/Conformity

Price Basis for Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

We can offer any of the following price basis depending on your requirement:

  • Ex-works
  • FOR Site in India
  • FOB Nhava Sheva
  • CFR, CIF, CPT your destination port
  • Door to Door Delivery Duty Paid as well as Duty Unpaid

Delivery Time of Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

  • If the items are available in stock, we take 2 days from the date of receipt of advance payment to clear the shipment and send it to port.
  • And in-case the items are not available in stock, the time taken for manufacturing depends on the size, quantity and grade.
  • However we can claim the fact that we can compete with anyone in India on Delivery time and most of the time our production time is the least.
  • We have tied up with strong logistic partners in India which can undertake any type of shipping activities and make sure that there is no delay in shipment.

Suppliers of Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings in India

Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Surat, Pune, Jaipur, Visakhapatnam, Kanpur, Nagpur, Lucknow, Thane, Bhopal, Indore, Pimpri Chinchwad, Patna, Vadodara, Ghaziabad, Ludhiana, Agra, Nashik, Faridabad, Meerut, Rajkot, Kalyan-Dombivli, Vasai-Virar, Varanasi, Srinagar, Aurangabad, Dhanbad, Amritsar, Navi Mumbai, Allahabad, Howrah, Ranchi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Coimbatore, Vijayawada, Jodhpur, Madurai, Raipur, Chandigarh, Guntur, Guwahati, Solapur, Hubli–Dharwad, Mysore, Tiruchirappalli, Bareilly, Moradabad, Tiruppur, Gurgaon, Aligarh, Jalandhar, Bhubaneswar, Salem, Mira-Bhayandar, Warangal, Jalgaon, Kota, Bhiwandi, Saharanpur, Gorakhpur, Bikaner, Amravati, Noida, Jamshedpur, Bhilai, Cuttack, Firozabad, Kochi, Nellore, Bhavnagar, Dehradun, Durgapur, Asansol, Rourkela, Nanded, Kolhapur, Ajmer, Akola, Gulbarga, Jamnagar, Ujjain, Loni, Siliguri, Jhansi, Ulhasnagar, Jammu, Sangli-Miraj & Kupwad, Mangalore, Erode, Belgaum, Ambattur, Tirunelveli, Malegaon, Gaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Udaipur, Kakinada, Davanagere, Kozhikode, Maheshtala, Rajpur, Sonarpur, Rajahmundry, Bokaro, South Dumdum, Bellary, Patiala, Gopalpur, Agartala, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bhatpara, Panihati, Latur, Dhule, Tirupati, Rohtak, Sagar, Korba, Bhilwara, Berhampur, Muzaffarpur, Ahmednagar, Mathura, Kollam, Avadi, Kadapa, Kamarhati, Sambalpur, Bilaspur, Shahjahanpur, Satara, Bijapur, Kurnool, Rampur, Shimoga, Chandrapur, Junagadh, Thrissur, Alwar, Bardhaman, Kulti, Nizamabad, Parbhani, Tumkur, Khammam, Ozhukarai, Bihar Sharif, Panipat, Darbhanga, Bally, Aizawl, Dewas, Ichalkaranji, Karnal, Bathinda, Jalna, Eluru, Barasat, Kirari Suleman Nagar, Purnia, Satna, Mau, Sonipat, Farrukhabad, Durg, Imphal, Ratlam, Hapur, Arrah, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Etawah, Ambarnath, North Dumdum, Bharatpur, Begusarai, New Delhi, Gandhidham, Baranagar, Tiruvottiyur, Pondicherry, Sikar, Thoothukudi, Rewa, Mirzapur, Raichur, Pali, Ramagundam, Haridwar, Vijayanagaram, Tenali, Nagercoil, Sri Ganganagar, Karawal Nagar, Mango, Thanjavur, Bulandshahr, Uluberia, Katni, Sambhal, Singrauli, Nadiad, Secunderabad, Naihati, Yamunanagar, Bidhannagar, Pallavaram, Bidar, Munger, Panchkula, Burhanpur, Raurkela Industrial Township, Kharagpur, Dindigul, Gandhinagar, Hospet, Nangloi Jat, Malda, Ongole, Deoghar, Chapra, Haldia, Khandwa, Nandyal, Morena, Amroha, Anand, Bhind, Bhalswa Jahangir Pur, Madhyamgram, Bhiwani, Berhampore, Ambala, Morbi, Fatehpur, Raebareli, Mahaboobnagar, Chittoor, Bhusawal, Orai, Bahraich, Vellore, Mehsana, Raiganj, Sirsa, Danapur, Serampore, Sultan Pur Majra, Guna, Jaunpur, Panvel, Shivpuri, Surendranagar Dudhrej, Unnao, Chinsurah, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Machilipatnam, Shimla. Adoni, Udupi, Katihar, Proddatur, Saharsa, Hindupur, Sasaram, Hajipur, Bhimavaram, Kumbakonam, Dehri, Madanapalle, Siwan, Bettiah, Guntakal, Srikakulam, Motihari, Dharmavaram, Gudivada, Phagwara, Narasaraopet, Suryapet, Miryalaguda, Tadipatri, Karaikudi, Kishanganj, Jamalpur, Ballia, Kavali, Tadepalligudem, Amaravati, Buxar, Jehanabad, Aurangabad, Gangtok

Export Sales of Carbon Steel Threaded Pipe Fittings

  • America: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
  • Europe – Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Euro area, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom
  • Africa – Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • Asia – Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, East Timor, Georgia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Macao, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Palestine, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
  • Australia – Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu