Carbon Steel Fastener Manufacturers, Suppliers, Stockist – Carbon Steel Screws, CS Threaded Rods, CS Bolts, CS Nuts, CS Washers, CS Anchors – ASTM A193, ASTM A194

Fastener Terminology

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  • A fastener or fastening is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. In general, fasteners are used to create non-permanent joints; that is, joints that can be removed or dismantled without damaging the joining components. Welding is an example of creating permanent joints. Steel fasteners are usually made of stainless steel, carbon steel, or alloy steel.
  • Markings on the head of carbon steel fasteners:- A manufacturer marking which simply indicated the company that manufactured the fastener. The strength class which consists of two numbers separated by a decimal point. Common classes are 4.8, 8.8, 10.9, and 12.9. The number of the left indicates 1% of the tensile strength in MPa, or N/mm2. The number on the right indicates the proportion of the yield strength in relation to the tensile strength.
  • We are a leading professional manufacturer and supplier of various types of carbon steel fasteners (Sizes M6 to M72) such as bolts, nuts, screws, threaded rods, washers, rivets, anchors, cotter pins, clevis pins, hose clamps, and metal stamping’s. We also produce non-standard inch and metric carbon steel fasteners according to customer drawings and samples. We supply DIN, EN, ISO, ANSI, ASME, ASTM, BS, JIS, UNI and more metric and inch standard carbon steel fasteners, non-standard and customized carbon steel fasteners.
  • We are manufacturing carbon steel fasteners by following a stringent quality control program and standards which assure good surface and close dimensional tolerances. We are a global industry leading provider of carbon steel fastener solutions and have obtained ASME Quality and ISO 9001:2015 Certifications.
  • All our carbon steel fastener products are supplied with 3.1 specific test certificates, according to EN 10204. Certification according to 3.2 can be agreed at the time of ordering. Metallica makes it easy for you to source top quality carbon steel fasteners at the lowest prices.

Manufacturing Carbon Steel Fasteners – Nut, Bolts, Screws & Washers

Carbon steel fasteners, nuts, bolts and screws are generally manufactured by two processes namely cold forging and hot forging.

  • The cold forging process is generally used for manufacturing small size fasteners while hot forging process is used for large size bolts and nuts. The cold forging process starts with large steel wire rods, which are uncoiled and cut to length. This is followed by pressure forging, cold extrusion and reducing, or a combination of these procedures, followed by heat treating to improve strength and surface treating to improve durability.
  • Many other fasteners are also produced by the cold forming or forging process especially for producing large quantities, as it reduces the cost of production. The choice of the suitable forming machine depends on the size of the fastener and on the degree of forming. The greater the degree of forming, the more forming stages are required.
  • Screws are usually produced by cold forming process where in we usually receive the wire coiled on rolls.
  • Heat treatment process is used after the fastener production to increase the strength or control the mechanical properties of fasteners.
  • Nuts are usually produced with the cold or hot forming procedure as well. The choice of one or the other procedure depends on the one hand on the size and on the other on the required quantities.
  • The hot forging or forming production method is used mainly to manufacture large diameters starting with approx. M27, and longer pieces starting from approx. 300 mm. In addition, parts are possible that cannot be produced using cold forming because of the very small volumes, or because of a very high degree of forming.
  • Washers are produced by punching or forming process. The manufacturing process starts with making of punching die as per the required internal and external diameter of washer.
  • There are other operations involved in fastener production, such as head slotting, shank slotting (for thread-cutting screws), head drilling, etc. But the making of and threading the blank are the two major processes.

Carbon Steel Fastener, Nuts & Bolt Specifications, Stock & Production Range

Product Carbon Steel Fasteners
Type Bolt, Nut, Screw, Threaded Rod, Washer, Rivet, Anchor, Cotter Pins, Clevis Pins, Hose Clamps, and Metal Stamping
Materials Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Nickel Alloys, Alloy Steel, Titanium
Size M6 to M72, 1/4″ to 3″
Length Length Upto 1200mm, Custom length
Surface Black Oxide, Zinc Coating, Hot Dip Galvanizing, Black Zinc Coating, Brass Coating, Nickel and Chrome Plating
Certification EN 10204 3.1
Prices | +918928722715
  • Email Us on for best prices on various types of Carbon Steel Fasteners.

Parts of Carbon Steel Fasteners

  1. Nuts – Used with a bolt and washer to create a joint. It is considered a temporary joint because it can be easily removed.
  2. Bolts – Held on by a nut, typically with a shoulder, bolts have a much higher strength than screws and are used when removing the connection is likely.
  3. Washers – Used typically on the nut side of a nut and bolt assembly to provide the nut with a flat and smooth surface to fasten against. They can also protect the material surface.
  4. Screws – Used to hold materials together and considered permanent, screws hold themselves into the materials they are installed in without a nut.
    Types of Fastener Head

    Types of Fastener Head

  5. Rivets – Considered a permanent install, rivets hold materials together by expanding on one side of the hole resulting in a firm hold.
  6. Anchors – Typically permanent. Most are placed in a hole and somehow expanded to fill the hole and prevent pull-through
  7. Retaining Rings – A ring the is either expanded or compressed and fit into a recess on a shaft. They are commonly used on shocks to hold springs under pressure.
  8. Dowel Pins – A cylindrical metal pin used in machinery to keep pieces in place.
  9. Security Screws – Serve the Same functionality as screws but with unusual head styles that may add extra security to your assembly

Note: There are many kinds of each fastener that can serve different purposes. For example, sheet metal screws have sharp cutting threads that will easily cut through soft metals whereas a wood screw is used primarily in wood to wood applications.

Chemical Composition of Carbon Steel Fasteners

CLASS MATERIAL AND TREATMENT C, % P, max % S, max % B, max% Tempering Temperature [C]
10.9 CARBON STEEL WITH ADDITIVES (E.G. B, MN OR CR) QUENCHED AND TEMPERED 0.15-0.35 0.025 0.025 0.003 340
CARBON STEEL QUENCHED AND TEMPERED 0.25-0.55 0.025 0.025 0.003 425
12.9 ALLOY STEEL QUENCHED AND TEMPERED (G) 0.28-0.5 0.025 0.025 0.003 380

Applications of Carbon Steel Fasteners

  • Components that are exposed to saltwater, chemicals or other corrosive environments
  • High wear parts
  • Sanitary equipment
  • Components that are exposed to high heat and high stress
  • Components that require superior strength and stability.
  • Fasteners are widely used in various industries, including energy, electronics, electrical appliances, machinery, chemical industry, metallurgy, dies, hydraulic and other industries.

Advantages of Carbon Steel Fasteners

Light weight Hygienic safety
Flexibility Easy & quick installation
Toughness Non-magnetic
Chemically Inert Easy Availability
Resistance to Abrasion Inexpensive
Smooth surface Carbon Steel Bolts Have an Excellent Life Cycle
Environmental stress crack resistance Better Visual appeal
Corrosion resistance Easier Replacement of Parts
Frost & rodent resistance
  • In some important cases, some anti-loose measures will be taken to ensure the reliability of the nut locking. The use of lock nut is one of the anti-loose measures. The working principle of the nut is self-locking by the friction between the nut and the bolt.
  •  They are easily disassembled, as opposed to something like riveting or welding, which requires cutting.
  • They can be designed to take tension loads, unlike riveting (by tightening the bolt/nut to develop a preload, you reduce the effects of fatigue due to cyclic loading, which you can’t do with a rivet; plus, rivets can easily pull through a hole when loaded in tension).
  • Welds require heating a metal, which can change the properties in the heat-affected zone, and can also create thermal stresses. Bolts avoid this problem. You’re also not likely to start a fire (welds) or breathe toxic fumes (welds and adhesive joints) when you’re installing a bolt.
  • Bolted joints aren’t particularly sensitive to the condition of the parent material. With welds and adhesive joints, the parent material needs to be clean, free of oils, etc. (and obviously, it has to be metal to weld).
  • You can put a bolt in a blind hole (one that doesn’t go all the way through the material); you can’t use a rivet.
  • Bolts are easy. Welding takes a lot of skill and a lot of time, particularly if you’re going to inspect the weld for flaws after it’s completed. But just about everybody has used a wrench.
  • Bolts offer much better joint quality than a screw, mostly because the threads are more tightly controlled.

Disadvantages of Stainless Steel Fasteners

  1. Need to Be Properly Fastened – With carbon steel fasteners you need to make sure that they are properly affixed with spacers or else you run the risk of metal-on-metal corrosion.

Standards for Carbon Steel Fasteners

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) publishes several Standards on fasteners. Some are:

  • B18.3 Socket Cap, Shoulder, Set Screws, and Hex Keys (Inch Series)
  • B18.6.1 Wood Screws (Inch Series)
  • B18.6.2 Slotted Head Cap Screws, Square Head Set Screws, And Slotted Headless Set Screws (Inch Series)
  • B18.6.3 Machine Screws, Tapping Screws, and Metallic Drive Screws (Inch Series)
  • B18.18 Quality Assurance For Fasteners
  • B18.24 Part Identifying Number (PIN) Code System Standard for B18 Fastener Products
Carbon Steel Type Standard Grades Specification
Medium-Temp Pipes A106 A, B, C This specification covers carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service.
Fittings A234 WPA, WPB, WPC This specification covers wrought carbon steel and alloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction.
Flanges A105 This specification covers standards for forged carbon steel piping components, that is, flanges, fittings, Valves, and similar parts, for use in pressure systems at ambient and higher-temperature service conditions.
Valves A216 WCB This specification covers carbon steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, or other pressure-containing parts for high-temperature service and of quality suitable for assembly with other castings or wrought-steel parts by fusion welding.
Bolts & Nuts A193 B7 This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
A194 2H Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.
High-Temp Pipes A335 P1, P11, P12, P22, P5, P9 This specification covers seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service.
Fittings A234 WP1, WP11, WP12, WP22, WP5, WP9 This specification covers wrought carbon steel and alloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction.
Flanges A182 F1, F11, F12, F22, F5, F9 This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.
Valves A217 WC1, WC6, WC9, C5, C12 This specification covers steel castings, martensitic stainless steel and alloys steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for high-temperature and corrosive service.
Bolts & Nuts A193 B7 This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
A194 2H Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.
Low-Temp Pipes A333 6, 3 This specification covers wall seamless and welded carbon and alloy steel pipe intended for use at low temperatures.
Fittings A420 WPL6, WPL3 Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low-temperature service.
Flanges A182 F304, F316, F321, F347 This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.
Valves A182 F304, F316, F321, F347 This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.
Bolts & Nuts A193 B8 This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
A194 8 Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.

Stainless Steel Fasteners

  • Stainless Steel 304/304L Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 304H Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 310/310S Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 316/316L Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 316Ti Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 317/317L Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 321/321H Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 347 Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 347H Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 410 Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 446 Fasteners
  • Stainless Steel 904L Fasteners

Alloy Steel Fasteners

  • Alloy Steel B6 Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel B7 Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel B7M Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel B16 Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel 2 Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel 2HM Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel 2H Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel GR 6 Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel GR 7 Bolt/Nut
  • Alloy Steel GR 7M Bolt/Nut

Hastelloy Fasteners

  • Hastelloy C22 Fasteners
  • Hastelloy C276 Fasteners
  • Hastelloy B2 Fasteners
  • Hastelloy B3 Fasteners
  • Hastelloy X Fasteners

Nickel Fasteners

  • Nickel 200 Fasteners
  • Nickel 201 Fasteners

Special Alloy Fasteners

  • Alloy 20 Fasteners
  • SMO 254 Fasteners
  • AISI 4130 Fasteners
  • Aluminium Fasteners
  • Alloy A286 Fasteners
  • 17-4ph Fasteners
  • Aluminium Fasteners

Duplex Steel Fasteners

  • Duplex Steel S31803 / S32205 Fasteners
  • Super Duplex Steel S32750/ S32760 Fasteners

Titanium Fasteners

  • Titanium Gr 2 Fasteners
  • Titanium Gr 5 Fasteners

Inconel Fasteners

  • Inconel 600 Fasteners
  • Inconel 601 Fasteners
  • Inconel 625 Fasteners
  • Inconel 718 Fasteners

Incoloy Fasteners

  • Incoloy 800 / 800H / 800HT Fasteners
  • Incoloy 825 Fasteners
  • Incoloy 925 Fasteners
  • Incoloy 330/ SS 330/ Ra 330 Fasteners

Monel Fasteners

  • Monel 400 Fasteners
  • Monel K500 Fasteners

Cupro Nickel Fasteners

  • Cupro Nickel 90 / 10 Fasteners
  • Cupro Nickel 70 / 30 Fasteners
  • Copper Fasteners
  • Brass Fasteners

Carbon Steel Fasteners

  • Low Carbon Steel Fasteners
  • Middle Carbon Steel Fasteners
  • High Carbon Fasteners
  • High Strength Nuts & Bolts

Testing & Inspection of  Metal Carbon Steel Fasteners

Testing (Destructive, Non Destructive)

Positive Material Identification – PMI Testing Hydrostatic Test
Chemical Analysis – Spectro Analysis Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) Test
Mechanical Testing Such as Tensile, Elongation, Reduction of Area Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC), NACE TM 0177
Micro Test Radiography Test
Macro Test Dye Penetrant Test (DP Test)
Hardness Test Ultra Sonic Test (UT)
Pitting Resistance Test Eddy Current Testing
Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) Test Impact Test
Flaring Test Bend Test
Flattening Test


  • Our internal inspection reports would be provided for all the goods before shipment.
  • Buyers or their associates are most welcome to visit us for personal inspect
  • We regularly have inspections ongoing at our premises from internationally acclaimed Inspection Agencies such as TUV, BVIS, SGS, Llyods, DNV etc.

Prices for Metal Carbon Steel Fasteners

Prices for carbon steel fastener products are directly co related to prices of the raw materials such as iron ore, metal scrap, chromium, nickel and various other alloying elements. The production cost of heat resistant stainless steel and nickel alloy fasteners is high as they contain high amount of nickel and chromium. Meanwhile, mild steel material is among the lowest cost steel available, followed by carbon steel, 400 series stainless steels, aluminium, alloy steel, and 300 series stainless steel. Special alloys such as titanium, Inconel, Monel and Hastelloy cost very high as the nickel, chromium and moly content is very high.

For special and discounted prices for various types of carbon steel fasteners, nuts and bolts products, please feel free to contact us through email, phone or whatsapp.

We are also regularly publishing our price list for various steel products on our blog.

Documents Provided – Domestic Sales or Export of Carbon Steel Fasteners

Certificate of Origin Raw Material Test Reports
Commercial Invoice Heat Treatment Charts
Packing List Quality Assurance Plan (QAP)
Fumigation Certificates NABL approved Laboratory Test Reports
Letter of Guarantee Material Test Certificates
ROHS Certificate Certificate of Compliance/Conformity

Price Terms for Carbon Steel Fasteners

We can offer any of the following price basis depending on your requirement:

  • Ex-works
  • FOR Site in India
  • FOB Nhava Sheva
  • CFR, CIF, CPT your destination port
  • Door to Door Delivery Duty Paid as well as Duty Unpaid

Delivery Time of Carbon Steel Fasteners

  • If the items are available in stock, we take 2 days from the date of receipt of advance payment to clear the shipment and send it to port.
  • And in-case the items are not available in stock, the time taken for manufacturing depends on the size, quantity and grade.
  • However we can claim the fact that we can compete with anyone in India on Delivery time and most of the time our production time is the least.
  • We have tied up with strong logistic partners in India which can undertake any type of shipping activities and make sure that there is no delay in shipment.

Marking & Packing of Carbon Steel Fasteners

  • All our products will have complete marking details which are co-related to the test certificates we supply.
  • In case of orders for cut piece of Pipes, Sheets or Round Bars, the marking is transferred from the product from which it is cut. In such cases we provide Letter confirming the marking transfer and picture of the product from which it is cut.
  • All goods are packed in wooden cases or pallets.

Suppliers of Carbon Steel Fasteners in India

Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Surat, Pune, Jaipur, Visakhapatnam, Kanpur, Nagpur, Lucknow, Thane, Bhopal, Indore, Pimpri Chinchwad, Patna, Vadodara, Ghaziabad, Ludhiana, Agra, Nashik, Faridabad, Meerut, Rajkot, Kalyan-Dombivli, Vasai-Virar, Varanasi, Srinagar, Aurangabad, Dhanbad, Amritsar, Navi Mumbai, Allahabad, Howrah, Ranchi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Coimbatore, Vijayawada, Jodhpur, Madurai, Raipur, Chandigarh, Guntur, Guwahati, Solapur, Hubli–Dharwad, Mysore, Tiruchirappalli, Bareilly, Moradabad, Tiruppur, Gurgaon, Aligarh, Jalandhar, Bhubaneswar, Salem, Mira-Bhayandar, Warangal, Jalgaon, Kota, Bhiwandi, Saharanpur, Gorakhpur, Bikaner, Amravati, Noida, Jamshedpur, Bhilai, Cuttack, Firozabad, Kochi, Nellore, Bhavnagar, Dehradun, Durgapur, Asansol, Rourkela, Nanded, Kolhapur, Ajmer, Akola, Gulbarga, Jamnagar, Ujjain, Loni, Siliguri, Jhansi, Ulhasnagar, Jammu, Sangli-Miraj & Kupwad, Mangalore, Erode, Belgaum, Ambattur, Tirunelveli, Malegaon, Gaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Udaipur, Kakinada, Davanagere, Kozhikode, Maheshtala, Rajpur, Sonarpur, Rajahmundry, Bokaro, South Dumdum, Bellary, Patiala, Gopalpur, Agartala, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bhatpara, Panihati, Latur, Dhule, Tirupati, Rohtak, Sagar, Korba, Bhilwara, Berhampur, Muzaffarpur, Ahmednagar, Mathura, Kollam, Avadi, Kadapa, Kamarhati, Sambalpur, Bilaspur, Shahjahanpur, Satara, Bijapur, Kurnool, Rampur, Shimoga, Chandrapur, Junagadh, Thrissur, Alwar, Bardhaman, Kulti, Nizamabad, Parbhani, Tumkur, Khammam, Ozhukarai, Bihar Sharif, Panipat, Darbhanga, Bally, Aizawl, Dewas, Ichalkaranji, Karnal, Bathinda, Jalna, Eluru, Barasat, Kirari Suleman Nagar, Purnia, Satna, Mau, Sonipat, Farrukhabad, Durg, Imphal, Ratlam, Hapur, Arrah, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Etawah, Ambarnath, North Dumdum, Bharatpur, Begusarai, New Delhi, Gandhidham, Baranagar, Tiruvottiyur, Pondicherry, Sikar, Thoothukudi, Rewa, Mirzapur, Raichur, Pali, Ramagundam, Haridwar, Vijayanagaram, Tenali, Nagercoil, Sri Ganganagar, Karawal Nagar, Mango, Thanjavur, Bulandshahr, Uluberia, Katni, Sambhal, Singrauli, Nadiad, Secunderabad, Naihati, Yamunanagar, Bidhannagar, Pallavaram, Bidar, Munger, Panchkula, Burhanpur, Raurkela Industrial Township, Kharagpur, Dindigul, Gandhinagar, Hospet, Nangloi Jat, Malda, Ongole, Deoghar, Chapra, Haldia, Khandwa, Nandyal, Morena, Amroha, Anand, Bhind, Bhalswa Jahangir Pur, Madhyamgram, Bhiwani, Berhampore, Ambala, Morbi, Fatehpur, Raebareli, Mahaboobnagar, Chittoor, Bhusawal, Orai, Bahraich, Vellore, Mehsana, Raiganj, Sirsa, Danapur, Serampore, Sultan Pur Majra, Guna, Jaunpur, Panvel, Shivpuri, Surendranagar Dudhrej, Unnao, Chinsurah, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Machilipatnam, Shimla. Adoni, Udupi, Katihar, Proddatur, Saharsa, Hindupur, Sasaram, Hajipur, Bhimavaram, Kumbakonam, Dehri, Madanapalle, Siwan, Bettiah, Guntakal, Srikakulam, Motihari, Dharmavaram, Gudivada, Phagwara, Narasaraopet, Suryapet, Miryalaguda, Tadipatri, Karaikudi, Kishanganj, Jamalpur, Ballia, Kavali, Tadepalligudem, Amaravati, Buxar, Jehanabad, Aurangabad, Gangtok

Exporters of Carbon Steel Fasteners

  • America: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
  • Europe – Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Euro area, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom
  • Africa – Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • Asia – Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, East Timor, Georgia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Macao, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Palestine, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
  • Australia – Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu