Alloy Steel Welded Pipe & Tube Manufacturers, Suppliers, Stockist –  ASTM A333, ASTM A335 and A213 Welded Pipe/ERW Pipe Dealers in India and Worldwide

ASTM A335 P1 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T2 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P2 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T5 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P5/P5b/P5c Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T5b Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P9 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T5c Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P11 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T9 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P12 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T11 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P22 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T12 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P23 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T22 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P91 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T23 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A335 P92 Alloy Steel Welded Pipes ASTM A213 T91 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
ASTM A209 T1 Alloy Steel Welded Tube ASTM A213 T92 Alloy Steel Welded Tube
  • As a leading Indian alloy steel pipe & tubes supplier, Metallica produce and manufacture a wide range of alloy steel welded pipes & tubes. We are manufacturers, stockist and suppliers of welded alloy steel pipes in various standards such as ASTM A213, ASTM A335 and A333.
  • We manufacture and supply alloy steel welded pipes and tubes for critical applications in industries like oil & gas, aviation, aerospace, petrochemical, natural gas, paper making, industrial gas, heat exchange and others. All materials are also available in accordance to equivalent DIN/ EN standards and grades. All our alloy steel welded pipes and tube products are supplied with 3.1 specific test certificates, according to EN 10204. Certification according to 3.2 can be agreed at the time of ordering.
  • Metallica also stocks and suppliers a wide range of stock of alloy steel pipe fittings, alloy steel flanges and valves, and all our products are supplied with complete product certification.
  • Metallica makes it easy for you to source top quality alloy steel welded pipes at the lowest prices in India. We specialize in providing deliveries to your factory directly from our warehouse or our principal suppliers.
  • The supply of our alloy welded pipes & tubes comes with multiple sizes and various grades which are both customizable.
  • In addition to supplying alloy steel pipes and tubes, Metallica also offers fabrication services that include cutting, bending, shearing, saw cutting and welding for all of kinds of welded steel pipes and tubes. Our primary objective is to ensure that our customers receive alloy steel pipes and tubes at competitive prices, together with excellent service.
Alloy Steel Welded Pipes and Tubes Manufacturers

Alloy Steel Welded Pipe Manufacturers

Alloy Steel Welded Tubes Manufacturers

Alloy Steel Welded Tube Manufacturers

Production & Stock Range of Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

Product Alloy Steel Welded Pipe
Shapes Round Pipes/Tubes, Square Pipes/Tubes, Rectangular Pipe/Tubes, Coiled Tubes, Pan Cake Coils, Hydraulic Tubes
Types ERW / Welded / Fabricated / CDW
Size (NB sizes) 1/8″ to 42″
Thickness SCH 40, SCH 80, SCH 160, SCH XS, SCH XXS, All Schedules, Upto 12mm thick
Common Grades ASTM A335 P1, ASTM A335 P2, ASTM A335 P5, ASTM A335 P9, ASTM A335 P11, ASTM A335 P12, ASTM A335 P22, ASTM A335 P23, ASTM A335 P91, ASTM A335 P92, ASTM A213 T2, ASTM A213 T5, ASTM A213 T5b, ASTM A213 T5c, ASTM A213 T9, ASTM A213 T11, ASTM A213 T12, ASTM A213 T22, ASTM A213 T23, ASTM A213 T91, ASTM A213 T92, ASTM A519, EN10216-2
Fittings Type Butt Weld, Flanges, Black, Galvanized Fittings
Other Fittings Elbows, Tees, Reducers, Caps, Stub Ends, Flanges (ANSI, Table E, D and H)
End Connections Plain, Bevel, Screwed, Threaded
Inspection Mill Test Certificates, EN 10204 3.1 and Various Chemical and Mechanical Tests Conducted like PMI Test, Visual Inspection, Third Party Inspection, NABL Approved Lab Reports, Destructive Test, Non Destructive Test, India Boiler Regulations (IBR) Test Certificate
Surface Finish Black Painting, Anti-Corrosion Oil, Galvanized Finish, Finish as per customer Requirements
Delivery Packed in Wooden Boxes, Plastic Bags, Steel Strips Bundled, or as per Customers Requests

Chemical Composition Of Welded Alloy Steel Pipe

ASTM A335
Low-Alloy Steel
(Grades)
UNS
equivalent
C≤ Mn P≤ S≤ Si≤ Cr Mo
P1 K11522 0.10~0.20 0.30~0.80 0.025 0.025 0.10~0.50 0.44~0.65
P2 K11547 0.10~0.20 0.30~0.61 0.025 0.025 0.10~0.30 0.50~0.81 0.44~0.65
P5 K41545 0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 4.00~6.00 0.44~0.65
P5b K51545 0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 1.00~2.00 4.00~6.00 0.44~0.65
P5c K41245 0.12 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 4.00~6.00 0.44~0.65
P9 S50400 0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.50~1.00 8.00~10.00 0.44~0.65
P11 K11597 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.61 0.025 0.025 0.50~1.00 1.00~1.50 0.44~0.65
P12 K11562 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 0.80~1.25 0.44~0.65
P15 K11578 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 1.15~1.65 0.44~0.65
P21 K31545 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 2.65~3.35 0.80~1.60
P22 K21590 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 1.90~2.60 0.87~1.13
P91 K91560 0.08~0.12 0.30~0.60 0.02 0.01 0.20~0.50 8.00~9.50 0.85~1.05
P92 K92460 0.07~0.13 0.30~0.60 0.02 0.01 0.5 8.50~9.50 0.30~0.60

Difference Between Seamless and Welded Alloy Steel Pipe. How to Identify Whether a Pipe is Seamless or Welded?

Electric Resistance Welding (ERW) pipe is manufactured by rolling metal and then welding it longitudinally across its length. Seamless pipe is manufactured by extruding the metal to the desired length; therefore ERW pipe have a welded joint in its cross-section, while seamless pipe does not have any joint in its cross-section through-out its length.

In Seamless pipe, there are no welding or joints and is manufactured from solid round billets. The seamless pipe is finished to dimensional and wall thickness specifications in sizes from 1/8 inch to 26 inch OD. Applicable in for High-pressure applications such as Hydrocarbon Industries & Refineries, Oil & Gas Exploration & Drilling, Oil & Gas Transportation and Air and Hydraulic cylinders, Bearings, Boilers, Automobiles, etc.

ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) pipes are welded longitudinally, manufactured from Strip / Coil and can be manufactured upto 24” OD. ERW pipe cold formed from a ribbon of steel pulled through a series of rollers and formed into a tube which is fused through a electric charge. It is mainly used for low/ medium pressure applications such as transportation of water / oil. Common sizes for ERW Steel Pipe range from 2 3/8 inch OD to 24 inch OD in a variety of lengths to over 100 feet. Surface finishes are available in bare and coated formats and processing can be handled on site to customer specifications.

How to identify whether the pipe is seamless or welded?

If it is ASTM A53,

Type S means seamless.
Type F is furnace but welded,
Type E is Electrical resist welded.
That is how. It is the easiest way to identify whether pipe is Seamless or ERW.

Manufacturing Process of Welded Alloy Steel Pipe

Welded Pipes are manufactured from plate or from continues coil or strips. To manufacture welded pipe, first, plate or coil is rolled in the circular section with the help of plate bending machine or by a roller in the case of continuous process.

At the start of the welded pipe manufacturing process, so called slabs or billets are cast in a steel mill. Dependent on the external dimensions and wall thickness there are different methods of producing welded pipes and tubes. The welded pipes are produced by three types of welding processes:

  1. Electric Resistance Welding (ERW)
  2. Fusion Welding (EFW)
  3. Double Submerged Arc Welding (DSAW)

In the ERW and EFW manufacturing process welded pipes are formed by hot or cold rolling plate and welding the seam. In order to keep the outside (O.D.) surface of a welded pipe smooth and uniform a cutting tool called scarfing blade is used to remove the weld flash. Scarfing from the inside (I.D.) welded flash is also possible. With a heat treating at the end of the manufacturing process the weld zone of the steel pipe can be made less visible. Due to the weld seam lower operating pressures are stated in accordance with ASME compared to seamless pipes. In general welded tubes possess tighter dimensional tolerances than seamless pipes and are less costly if produced in same quantities. The process of producing Double Submerged Arc Welded Pipes first contains forming steel plates into cylindrical shapes. Later on the edges of the rolled plate are forged so that v-shaped notches are on the exterior and interior area of the seam. Then the pipe seam is being welded by an arc welder submerged under flux. In the case of high thickness pipe, multiple pass welding is done.

Click Here to Read More About Manufacturing Process for Welding.

Standards & Codes Specification

Commonly Used Standards and Codes

Sr. No Code Standards
1 ANSI B16.11 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.
2 ANSI B 16.5 Flanges
3 MSS SP-44 Large Dia Flanges.
4 ASME B 16.47 (SERIES A & B) Large Dia Flanges.
5 DIN Flanges
6 BS 4504 Flanges
7 ASTM A105 Forging, Carbon Steel for piping components
8 ASTM A182 Forged & Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges. Forged Fittings & Valves and parts for high temperature services.
9 ASTM A 350 Carbon & Low Alloy Steel, requiring notch toughness testing for piping components
10 ASTM A 515 Standard specifications for Pressure Vessel-Plates Carbon Steel for intermediate and higher temperature services.
11 ASTM A 516 Standard Specifications for Pressure Vessel Plates Carbon steel for Moderate and lower temperature services.
12 ASTM A 517 Standard specifications for Pressure Vessel Plates Alloy Steel High Strength Quenched & Tempered.
13 ASTM A 333 Standard specification for Seamless & Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Services.
14 ASTM A 335 Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic Alloy steels pipe for High Temperature Services.
15 IS 2002 Specification for steels Plates for Boilers.
16 IS 2062 Specification for weldable structure steel.
17 IS 1239 Mild Steel Tubes Tubular & other wrought steel fittings specification.
18 IS 3589 Mild Steel Tubes Tubular & other wrought steel fittings specification.

Effects of Alloying Elements on Steel

•Manganese – strength and hardness; decreases ductility and weldability; effects hardenability of steel.
•Phosphorus – increases strength and hardness and decreases ductility and notch impact toughness of steel.
•Sulfur decreases ductility and notch impact toughness Weldability decreases. Found in the form of sulfide inclusions.
•Silicon – one of the principal deoxidizers used in steel making. In low-carbon steels, silicon is generally detrimental to surface quality.
•Copper – detrimental to hot-working steels; beneficial to corrosion resistance (Cu>0.20%).
•Nickel – ferrite strengthener; increases the hardenability and impact strength of steels.
•Molybdenum –  increases the hardenability; enhances the creep resistance of low-alloy steels.

Steel Pipe Sizes

Pipe size is quoted as a “Nominal Pipe Size” or NPS. The origin of the NPS numbers for smaller pipes (< NPS 12) is different to the origin for larger diameter pipes. However, all pipes of a specific NPS number have the same external or outer diameter (OD). The internal diameter will vary depending on the wall thickness of the metal. The reason for this is so that the same structural supports can be used for all piping of a specific NPS number regardless of the wall thickness.

Schedules

Steel pipe schedules are a way to describe the wall thickness of the pipe. This is a critical parameter as it is directly related to the strength of the pipe and the suitability for specific applications. A pipe schedule is a dimensionless number and is calculated based on the design formula for wall thickness, given the design pressure and allowable stress.

Examples of schedule numbers are as follows: 5, 5S, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS, and XXS—with the most common being schedules 40 and 80. As the schedule number increases, the wall thickness of the pipe increases. The schedule number of a pipe therefore defines the internal diameter, as the OD is fixed by the NPS number.

Certification of Steel Pipes

Manufacturers issue a Material Test Report or Mill Test Report to validate that the product meets the chemical analysis and mechanical properties specification. The MTR will contain all relevant data to the product and will accompany the product through its lifecycle.

The following are typical parameters that may be recorded on an MTR:

  • Chemical composition including carbon content, alloys, and sulfur
  • Material size, weight, identification, and grade
  • Material heat number, which ties back to the processing batch
  • Mechanical properties like tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation

At Metallica, we will Provide you with Original MTR’s for all Alloy Steel Pipe Products! We will Send Our Test Certificates, along with Quotation.

Over 1000 Tons in Stock for Alloy Steel Pipes! ISMT & Jindal Steel Pipes Dealers, Original MTR’s Provided with All Materials
As one of the biggest alloy steel pipe stockholder and supplier in India, Metallica carries inventory of over 1,000 tons in its warehouses in Mumbai, Maharashtra India. We sell our alloy steel pipe products throughout India, and to international clients. We can supply our alloy steel tube products not only in industry-standard lengths and diameters, but also in custom length and diameters.

Testing & Inspection of Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

Testing (Destructive, Non Destructive)

Positive Material Identification – PMI Testing Hydrostatic Test
Chemical Analysis – Spectro Analysis Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) Test
Mechanical Testing Such as Tensile, Elongation, Reduction of Area Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC), NACE TM 0177
Micro Test Radiography Test
Macro Test Dye Penetrant Test (DP Test)
Hardness Test Ultra Sonic Test (UT)
Pitting Resistance Test Eddy Current Testing
Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) Test Impact Test
Flaring Test Bend Test
Flattening Test

Inspection

  • Our internal inspection reports would be provided for all the goods before shipment.
  • Buyers or their associates are most welcome to visit us for personal inspect
  • We regularly have inspections ongoing at our premises from internationally acclaimed Inspection Agencies such as TUV, BVIS, SGS, Llyods, DNV etc.

Prices for Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

Prices for alloy steel welded pipes are directly co related to prices of the raw materials such as iron ore, metal scrap, chromium, nickel and various other alloying elements. The production cost of heat resistant stainless steel and nickel alloy plates is high as they contain high amount of nickel and chromium. Meanwhile, mild steel material is among the lowest cost steel available, followed by carbon steel, 400 series stainless steels, aluminium, alloy steel, and 300 series stainless steel. Special alloys such as titanium, Inconel, Monel and Hastelloy cost very high as the nickel, chromium and moly content is very high.

For special and discounted prices for various types of alloy steel welded pipes, please feel free to contact us through email, phone or whatsapp.

We are also regularly publishing our pricelist for various steel products on our blog.

Documents Provided at the time of Domestic Sales or Export of Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

Certificate of Origin Raw Material Test Reports
Commercial Invoice Heat Treatment Charts
Packing List Quality Assurance Plan (QAP)
Fumigation Certificates NABL approved Laboratory Test Reports
Letter of Guarantee Material Test Certificates
ROHS Certificate Certificate of Compliance/Conformity

Price Basis for Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

We can offer any of the following price basis depending on your requirement:

  • Ex-works
  • FOR Site in India
  • FOB Nhava Sheva
  • CFR, CIF, CPT your destination port
  • Door to Door Delivery Duty Paid as well as Duty Unpaid

Delivery Time of Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

  • If the items are available in stock, we take 2 days from the date of receipt of advance payment to clear the shipment and send it to port.
  • And in-case the items are not available in stock, the time taken for manufacturing depends on the size, quantity and grade.
  • However we can claim the fact that we can compete with anyone in India on Delivery time and most of the time our production time is the least.
  • We have tied up with strong logistic partners in India which can undertake any type of shipping activities and make sure that there is no delay in shipment.

Marking & Packing of Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

  • All our products will have complete marking details which are co-related to the test certificates we supply.
  • In case of orders for cut piece of Pipes, Sheets or Round Bars, the marking is transferred from the product from which it is cut. In such cases we provide Letter confirming the marking transfer and picture of the product from which it is cut.
  • All goods are packed in wooden cases or pallets.

Suppliers of Alloy Steel Welded Pipes in India

Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Surat, Pune, Jaipur, Visakhapatnam, Kanpur, Nagpur, Lucknow, Thane, Bhopal, Indore, Pimpri Chinchwad, Patna, Vadodara, Ghaziabad, Ludhiana, Agra, Nashik, Faridabad, Meerut, Rajkot, Kalyan-Dombivli, Vasai-Virar, Varanasi, Srinagar, Aurangabad, Dhanbad, Amritsar, Navi Mumbai, Allahabad, Howrah, Ranchi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Coimbatore, Vijayawada, Jodhpur, Madurai, Raipur, Chandigarh, Guntur, Guwahati, Solapur, Hubli–Dharwad, Mysore, Tiruchirappalli, Bareilly, Moradabad, Tiruppur, Gurgaon, Aligarh, Jalandhar, Bhubaneswar, Salem, Mira-Bhayandar, Warangal, Jalgaon, Kota, Bhiwandi, Saharanpur, Gorakhpur, Bikaner, Amravati, Noida, Jamshedpur, Bhilai, Cuttack, Firozabad, Kochi, Nellore, Bhavnagar, Dehradun, Durgapur, Asansol, Rourkela, Nanded, Kolhapur, Ajmer, Akola, Gulbarga, Jamnagar, Ujjain, Loni, Siliguri, Jhansi, Ulhasnagar, Jammu, Sangli-Miraj & Kupwad, Mangalore, Erode, Belgaum, Ambattur, Tirunelveli, Malegaon, Gaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Udaipur, Kakinada, Davanagere, Kozhikode, Maheshtala, Rajpur, Sonarpur, Rajahmundry, Bokaro, South Dumdum, Bellary, Patiala, Gopalpur, Agartala, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bhatpara, Panihati, Latur, Dhule, Tirupati, Rohtak, Sagar, Korba, Bhilwara, Berhampur, Muzaffarpur, Ahmednagar, Mathura, Kollam, Avadi, Kadapa, Kamarhati, Sambalpur, Bilaspur, Shahjahanpur, Satara, Bijapur, Kurnool, Rampur, Shimoga, Chandrapur, Junagadh, Thrissur, Alwar, Bardhaman, Kulti, Nizamabad, Parbhani, Tumkur, Khammam, Ozhukarai, Bihar Sharif, Panipat, Darbhanga, Bally, Aizawl, Dewas, Ichalkaranji, Karnal, Bathinda, Jalna, Eluru, Barasat, Kirari Suleman Nagar, Purnia, Satna, Mau, Sonipat, Farrukhabad, Durg, Imphal, Ratlam, Hapur, Arrah, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Etawah, Ambarnath, North Dumdum, Bharatpur, Begusarai, New Delhi, Gandhidham, Baranagar, Tiruvottiyur, Pondicherry, Sikar, Thoothukudi, Rewa, Mirzapur, Raichur, Pali, Ramagundam, Haridwar, Vijayanagaram, Tenali, Nagercoil, Sri Ganganagar, Karawal Nagar, Mango, Thanjavur, Bulandshahr, Uluberia, Katni, Sambhal, Singrauli, Nadiad, Secunderabad, Naihati, Yamunanagar, Bidhannagar, Pallavaram, Bidar, Munger, Panchkula, Burhanpur, Raurkela Industrial Township, Kharagpur, Dindigul, Gandhinagar, Hospet, Nangloi Jat, Malda, Ongole, Deoghar, Chapra, Haldia, Khandwa, Nandyal, Morena, Amroha, Anand, Bhind, Bhalswa Jahangir Pur, Madhyamgram, Bhiwani, Berhampore, Ambala, Morbi, Fatehpur, Raebareli, Mahaboobnagar, Chittoor, Bhusawal, Orai, Bahraich, Vellore, Mehsana, Raiganj, Sirsa, Danapur, Serampore, Sultan Pur Majra, Guna, Jaunpur, Panvel, Shivpuri, Surendranagar Dudhrej, Unnao, Chinsurah, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Machilipatnam, Shimla. Adoni, Udupi, Katihar, Proddatur, Saharsa, Hindupur, Sasaram, Hajipur, Bhimavaram, Kumbakonam, Dehri, Madanapalle, Siwan, Bettiah, Guntakal, Srikakulam, Motihari, Dharmavaram, Gudivada, Phagwara, Narasaraopet, Suryapet, Miryalaguda, Tadipatri, Karaikudi, Kishanganj, Jamalpur, Ballia, Kavali, Tadepalligudem, Amaravati, Buxar, Jehanabad, Aurangabad, Gangtok

Export Sales of Alloy Steel Welded Pipes

  • America: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
  • Europe – Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Euro area, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom
  • Africa – Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • Asia – Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, East Timor, Georgia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Macao, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Palestine, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
  • Australia – Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu