flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim (lip), for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails. The term “flange” is also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges.  The type of flange to be used for a piping application depends, mainly, on the required strength for the flanged joint. Flanges are used, alternatively to welded connections, to facilitate maintenance operations – Pipes with flanges can be assembled and disassembled easily. The flange is the second most used joining method after welding. A flanged joint is composed of three separate and independent although interrelated components; the flanges, the gaskets, and the bolting; which are assembled by yet another influence, the fitter.

An anchor flange is a device installed on a pipeline to combat axial movement. Resembling a collar, once it is attached to a pipe, the anchor flange is commonly anchored into a concrete foundation. Typically placed onto a section of pipeline as it makes a turn or is at a bridge crossing, the anchor flange is used to prevent the pipeline from moving. One of the common traits of a metal pipeline is its inherent movement caused by the flow of liquid through the pipe, as well as from the expansion and contraction caused by temperature changes. When a pipeline makes a sharp turn, the flow of liquid inside of the pipeline attempts to push the pipe in the direction of the flow. By placing an anchor flange on the pipeline and securing it into position by locking it in a concrete pillar buried deep into the ground, the forces pushing against the pipe are displaced into the earth.

Alloy Steel Flanges ASTM/ASME SA/A182 F1, F5, F9, F11, F22, F91
Stainless Steel Flanges ASTM/ASME A182 F304, A182 F304L, A182 F304H, A182 F316, A182 F316L, A182 F316H, A182 F317, A182 F317L, A182 F321, A182 F321H, A182 F347, A182 F51, A182 F53
Duplex and Super Duplex Flanges ASTM A 182 F51/ UNS S31803, F53/UNS S32750, F55/UNS S32760
Most Common Grade Carbon Steel Flange ASTM/ASME SA/A105, 105N
Low Temperature Carbon Steel Flanges ASTM/ASME SA/A350 LF1, LF2, LF3
High Yield Carbon Steel Flanges ASTM/ASME SA/A694 F42, F52, F60, F65, F70
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Types of Flanges

A flange can be characterized and classified in various ways such as:

-Types of Connection
-Flange facing Types
-Pressure Temperature Ratings
-Material Types

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International Standards

Design According to EN Type According to DIN
Weld Neck Flange Type 11 DIN 2627 – DIN 2638
Blind Flange Type 05 DIN 2527
Threaded Flange Type 12 DIN 2558, DIN 2565 – DIN 2569
Flat Flange Type 01 DIN 2573, DIN 2576
Lapped Flange Type 02 & Type 04 DIN 2641, DIN 2642, DIN 2655, DIN 2656

Similar to ASME flanges, EN1092-1 steel and stainless flanges, have several different versions of raised or none raised faces. According to the European form the seals are indicated by different form:

Form: types of Contact Faces DIN EN 1092-1
Without Raised Face Form A
Raised Face (Rz = 160 Mechanical Turned) Form B1
Raised Face ( Rz = 40 Mechanical Turned) Form B1
Raised Face (Rz = 16 Mechanical Turned) Form B2
Tongue According to DIN2512 Form C
Groove According to DIN 2512 Form D
Male According to DIN 2513 Form E
Female According to DIN 2513 Form F
Female According to DIN 2514 Form G
Male According to DIN 2514 Form H