A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating. It is a container that is heated to a very high temperature, so that substances that are put inside it, such as metal, will melt or burn.
The name derives from Latin word fornax, which means oven. The heat energy to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by fuel combustion, by electricity such as the electric arc furnace, or through induction heating in induction furnaces.
In metallurgy, several specialized furnaces are used. These include:
Furnaces used in smelters, including:
- The blast furnace, used to reduce iron ore to pig iron
Steelmaking furnaces, including:
- Puddling furnace
- Reverberatory furnace
- Bessemer converter
- Open hearth furnace
- Basic oxygen furnace
- Electric arc furnace
- Electric induction furnace
Furnaces used to remelt metal in foundries.
Furnaces used to reheat and heat treat metal for use in:
- Rolling mills, including tinplate works and slitting mills.
- Large Scale Enterprise – Metallica is biggest stock holding, manufacturing and processing company of SS 316/316L seamless pipes in India. Our large volume production, sales and purchase enables us to offer our products at the most competitive prices in the industry.
- Testing of Stainless Steel 316/316L Seamless Pipes– All SS 316/316L seamless pipes are subjected to hydrostatic test, eddy current test, chemical and mechanical tests during the various stages of production.
- Marking & Packing of Stainless Steel 316/316L Seamless Pipes – Marking on all pipes is as per the predefined rules in the specification.
- Test Certificates & Inspection of SS 316/316L Seamless Pipes – All our pipes are supplied with Mill test Reports, as per EN 10204 3.1. We can also allow third party inspection of all our products before delivery.
- We have own QC team to control the quality to meet particular standard strictly
- Short Lead Times – We can offer AISI 316/316L, 1.4401/1.4404, UNS S31600/UNS 31603 seamless pipes with shortest delivery time.
- We can produce either standard or non-standard of the stainless steel 316/316L seamless pipes.
What is 316/316L Stainless Steel?
Stainless Steel 316 is a chromium-nickel based, molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steel that possesses increased levels of resistance against several substances, due to the addition of molybdenum in its composition to help resist corrosion to chlorides (like sea water and de-icing salts). Grade 316 is an improved version of SS 304 because of slightly higher molybdenum and nickel content. The molybdenum allows SS 316 to be more resistance to corrosion overall in many aggressive environments, with specific resistance against chlorine pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. SS 316 is also found to be more applicable in areas with high or elevated temperatures compared to other stainless steels. It has more heat resistance than Type 304 but otherwise possesses many of the same general characteristics.
316’s corrosion resistance is especially effective against chemicals, such as those used in the paper and textile industries. The metal finds other common applications in food processing equipment, chemical processing, nuts and bolts, and medical implants. While the metal is pliable under hot and cold-working techniques, it cannot be work hardened with heat treatment and in general is considered to have lower weldability compared to the 304 type stainless steels. However, it is still preferred over many other stainless steel grades in terms of workability.
The letter L in 316L stands for low carbon. L-grades have 0.035% carbon maximum. L-grades are resistant to sensitization in short-term exposures or heat treatments. L-grade often have slightly lower (typically 5,000 psi less) minimum strengths than standard stainless steel.
Austenitic stainless steels can be welded together using many different welding processes. Some are more preferred for welding than others, such as 304, 308, 316, 321, and 347 which are all austenitic grades that are weldable.
Manufacturing Range for Stainless Steel 316/316L, 1.4401/1.4404, UNS S31600/UNS 31603 Seamless or Welded Stainless Steel Pipes
|Product||ASTM A312 TP316/ TP316L , 1.4401/1.4404, UNS S31600/UNS 31603 Stainless Steel Pipes|
|Specification||ASTM A312 / A312M Standard Specification for Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes|
|Type||Seamless & Welded|
|Size Range||Size: 1/8” to 24” (10.3mm to 610mm) – Seamless|
|Size:1/8” to 36” (10.3mm to 914mm) – Welded|
|1/8” OD to 6” OD|
|Thickness||10s, 20, 40s, 40, 60, 80s, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, XXH|
|Wall Thickness: 1mm to 60mm|
|Length||6 Meter, Custom Lengths|
|Other Grades||TP304, TP304L, TP304LN, TP316, TP316L, TP316LN, TP317, TP317/317L, TP321, TP347, TP310S|
|Test Certificates||Material Test Certificates (MTC) as per EN 10204 3.1 and EN 10204 3.2|
|ASTM Reference Standards|
- A262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels.
- A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products.
- A480 A480M Specification for general requirements for Flat-rolled stainless and Heat-Resisting steel plate, sheet, and strip.
- A632 Specification for Seamless and welded austenitic stainless-steel tubing (small-diameter) for general service.
- A1016 A1016M Specification for General Requirements for Ferritic Alloy Steel, Austenitic Alloy Steel, and Stainless-Steel Tubes.
- E527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System (UNS)
|Testing||Mechanical Testing Such as Tensile of Area, Hardness Test, Chemical Analysis – Spectro Analysis, Positive Material Identification – PMI Testing, Flattening Test, Micro and MacroTest, Pitting Resistance Test, Flaring Test, Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) Test|
|Documents||Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Certificate of Origin, Fumigation Certificates, Raw Material Test Reports, Material Traceability Records, Quality Assurance Plan (QAP), Heat Treatment Charts, Test Certificates certifying NACE MR0103, NACE MR0175, Material Test Certificates (MTC) as per EN 10204 3.1 and EN 10204 3.2, Guarantee Letter, NABL approved Laboratory Test Reports|
Chemical Composition of ASTM A312 TP316/TP316L , 1.4401/1.4404, UNS S31600/UNS 31603 Seamless or Welded Stainless Steel Pipes
|NI||11.0 – 14.0||10.0 – 14.0||10.0 – 14.0|
|C||0.08 max||0.035 max||0.08 max|
|MN||2.0 max||2.0 max||2.0 max|
|P||0.045 max||0.045 max||0.045 max|
|S||0.30 max||0.30 max||0.30 max|
|SI||1.0 max||1.0 max||0.75 max|
|CR||16.0 – 18.0||16.0 – 18.0||16.0 – 18.0|
|MO||2.0 – 3.0||2.0 – 3.0||2.0 – 3.0|
|TI||5x(C+N) – 0.70|
Other Grades Comparision
|Grade||UNS||Composition, % in Max.|
|TP304||S30400||0.08||2||0.045||0.03||1||18.0–20||8.0–11||. . .||. . .|
|TP304L||S30403||0.035||2||0.045||0.03||1||18.0–20||8.0–13||. . .||. . .|
|TP304LN||S30453||0.035||2||0.045||0.03||1||18.0–20||8.0–11||. . .||0.10-0.16|
|TP316||S31600||0.08||2||0.045||0.03||1||16.0–18||10.0–14||2.00–3||. . .|
|TP316L||S31603||0.035||2||0.045||0.03||1||16.0–18||10.0–15||2.00–3||. . .|
|TP316LN||S31653||0.035||2||0.045||0.03||1||16.0–18||10.0–13||. . .||0.10-0.16|
|TP317L||S31700||0.035||2||0.045||0.03||1||18.0–20||11.0–15||3.0–4||. . .|
|TP321||S32100||0.08||2||0.045||0.03||1||17.0–19||9.0–12||. . .||. . .|
|TP347||S34700||0.08||2||0.045||0.03||1||17.0–19||9.0–13||. . .||. . .|
Mechanical Properties of ASTM A312 TP316/TP316L, 1.4401/1.4404, UNS S31600/UNS 31603 Seamless or Welded Stainless Steel Pipes
|DENSITY||7.99 g/cm 3 / 0.29 lb/in 3|
|MELTING POINT||1371 – 1399 (°C) / 2500 – 2550 (°F)|
|ANNEALED||1040 (°C) / 1900 (°F)|
|ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY||74 microhm-cm (20 degrees Celsius)|
|SPECIFIC HEAT||0.50 kJ/kg-K (0–100 degrees Celsius)|
|THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY||16.2 W/m-k (100 degrees Celsius)|
|MODULUS OF ELASTICITY||193 x 103 in tension|
|Grade||UNS Designation||Tensile Strength, Min. Ksi [MPa]||Yield Strength, Min. Ksi [MPa]|
|TP304||S30400||75 ||30 |
|TP304L||S30403||70 ||25 |
|TP316||S31600||75 ||30 |
|TP316L||S31603||70 ||25 |
|TP317L||S31703||70 ||25 |
|TP321||S32100||75 ||30 |
|TP347||S34700||75 ||30 |
|TP347H||S34709||75 ||30 |